In the range of acid, we distinguish between volatile and non-volatile acids. Volatile acids evaporate by distillation or during the time, while non-volatile acids stay stable.
in wine and sparkling wine
Acetic acid is the most acid of the volatile acids into wine, so that analytical only acetic acid is measured as volatile acid. There appear also formic acid, succinic acid, butyric acid and propionic acid in negligible amounts. In contrast, volatile carbon dioxide into wine belong not to the group of volatile acids.
The most important non-volatile acids into wine are tartaric acid, malic acid and citric acid, these acids constitute two-thirds of non-volatile acids. In low amounts exist lactic acid, galacturonic acid, gluconic acid and glucuronic acid, glycolic acid, oxalic acid and mucic acid as well as a lot of other acids, which are present into wine only in traces. The content of non-volatile acids is calculated from the concentration of acetic acid and the total acid of the product.